Volume 11 Issue 1
Apr.  2020
Turn off MathJax
Article Contents
Jared D. Wolfe, Philip C. Stouffer, Richard O. Bierregaard Jr., David A. Luther, Thomas E. Lovejoy. 2020: Effects of a regenerating matrix on the survival of birds in tropical forest fragments. Avian Research, 11(1): 8. doi: 10.1186/s40657-020-00193-x
Citation: Jared D. Wolfe, Philip C. Stouffer, Richard O. Bierregaard Jr., David A. Luther, Thomas E. Lovejoy. 2020: Effects of a regenerating matrix on the survival of birds in tropical forest fragments. Avian Research, 11(1): 8. doi: 10.1186/s40657-020-00193-x

Effects of a regenerating matrix on the survival of birds in tropical forest fragments

doi: 10.1186/s40657-020-00193-x
More Information
  • Corresponding author: Jared D. Wolfe, jdwolfe@mtu.edu
  • Received Date: 04 Jul 2019
  • Accepted Date: 04 Mar 2020
  • Publish Date: 18 Mar 2020
  • Background Vast areas of lowland neotropical forest have regenerated after initially being cleared for agricultural purposes. The ecological value of regenerating second growth to forest-dwelling birds may largely depend on the age of the forest, associated vegetative structure, and when it is capable of sustaining avian demographics similar to those found in pristine forest.
    Methods To determine the influence of second growth age on bird demography, we estimated the annual survival of six central Amazonian bird species residing in pristine forest, a single 100 and a single 10 ha forest fragment, taking into consideration age of the surrounding matrix (i.e. regenerating forest adjacent to each fragment) as an explanatory variable.
    Results Study species exhibited three responses: arboreal, flocking and ant-following insectivores (Willisornis poecilinotus, Thamnomanes ardesiacus and Pithys albifrons) showed declines in survival associated with fragmentation followed by an increase in survival after 5 years of matrix regeneration. Conversely, Percnostola rufifrons, a gap-specialist, showed elevated survival in response to fragmentation followed by a decline after 5 years of regeneration. Lastly, facultative flocking and frugivore species (Glyphorynchus spirurus and Dixiphia pipra, respectively) showed no response to adjacent clearing and subsequent regeneration.
    Conclusions Our results in association with previous studies confirm that the value of regenerating forest surrounding habitat patches is dependent on two factors: ecological guild of the species in question and second growth age. Given the rapid increase in survival following succession, we suggest that the ecological value of young tropical forest should not be based solely on a contemporary snapshot, but rather, on the future value of mature second growth as well.


  • loading
  • Arnold TW. Uninformative parameters and model selection using Akaike's information criterion. J Wildl Manage. 2010;74:1175-8. doi: 10.1111/j.1937-2817.2010.tb01236.x
    Bayne EM, Hobson KA. Apparent survival of male Ovenbirds in fragmented and forested boreal landscapes. Ecology. 2002;83:1307-16. doi: 10.1890/0012-9658(2002)083[1307:ASOMOI]2.0.CO;2
    Bierregaard R Jr. Lessons from Amazonia: the ecology and conservation of a fragmented forest. New Haven: Yale University Press; 2001.
    Bierregaard RO Jr, Lovejoy TE. Effects of forest fragmentation on Amazonian understory bird communities. Acta Amaz. 1989;19:215-41. doi: 10.1590/1809-43921989191241
    Bierregaard RO Jr, Lovejoy TE, Kapos V, Dos Santos AA, Hutchings RW. The biological dynamics of tropical rainforest fragments. Bioscience. 1992;42:859-66. doi: 10.2307/1312085
    Brown S, Lugo AE. Tropical secondary forests. J Trop Ecol. 1990;6:1-32. doi: 10.1017/S0266467400003989
    Camargo JLC, Kapos V. Complex edge effects on soil moisture and microclimate in central Amazonian forest. J Trop Ecol. 1995;11:205-21. doi: 10.1017/S026646740000866X
    Canaday C. Loss of insectivorous birds along a gradient of human impact in Amazonia. Biol Conserv. 1996;77:63-77. doi: 10.1016/0006-3207(95)00115-8
    Cooch E, White G. Program MARK: a gentle introduction. 2018. http://www.phidot.org/software/mark/docs/book. Accessed Jan 2018.
    Debinski DM, Holt RD. A survey and overview of habitat fragmentation experiments. Conserv Biol. 2000;14:342-55. doi: 10.1046/j.1523-1739.2000.98081.x
    Ewers RM, Didham RK. Confounding factors in the detection of species responses to habitat fragmentation. Biol Rev. 2006;81:117-42.
    Gilpin ME, Soulé ME. Minimum viable populations: processes of species extinctions. In: Soulé ME, editor. Conservation biology: The science of scarcity and diversity. Sunderland: Sinauer Associates; 1986. p. 19-34.
    Johnson EI, Wolfe JD. Thamnophilidae (antbird) molt strategies in a central amazonian rainforest. Wilson J Ornithol. 2014;26:451-62.
    Johnson EI, Wolfe JD. Molt in Neotropical birds: life history and aging criteria. Boca Raton: CRC Press; 2017.
    Kennedy CM, Marra PP, Fagan WF, Neel MC. Landscape matrix and species traits mediate responses of Neotropical resident birds to forest fragmentation in Jamaica. Ecol Monogr. 2010;80:651-69. doi: 10.1890/09-0904.1
    Laurance WF, Camargo JLC, Luizao RCC, Laurance SG, Pimm SL, Bruna EM, et al. The fate of Amazonian forest fragments: a 32-year investigation. Biol Conserv. 2011;144:56-67. doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2010.09.021
    Laurance WF, Curran TJ. Impacts of wind disturbance on fragmented tropical forests: a review and synthesis. Austral Ecol. 2008;33:399-408. doi: 10.1111/j.1442-9993.2008.01895.x
    Laurance SG, Stouffer PC, Laurance WF. Effects of road clearings on movement patterns of understory rainforest birds in central Amazonia. Conserv Biol. 2004;18:1099-109. doi: 10.1111/j.1523-1739.2004.00268.x
    Moore RP, Robinson WD, Lovette IJ, Robinson TR. Experimental evidence for extreme dispersal limitation in tropical forest birds. Ecol Lett. 2008;11:960-8. doi: 10.1111/j.1461-0248.2008.01196.x
    Murcia C. Edge effects in fragmented forests: implications for conservation. Trends Ecol Evol. 1995;10:58-62. doi: 10.1016/S0169-5347(00)88977-6
    Powell LL, Zurita G, Wolfe JD, Johnson EI, Stouffer PC. Changes in habitat use at rain forest edges through succession: a case study of understory birds in the Brazilian Amazon. Biotropica. 2015;47:723-32. doi: 10.1111/btp.12253
    Pradel R, Hines JE, Lebreton JD, Nichols JD. Capture-recapture survival models taking account of transients. Biometrics. 1997;71:60-72. http://www.wanfangdata.com.cn/details/detail.do?_type=perio&id=b602c44ad6c1008a6c9cfb6e88cf13fd
    Rankin-de-Mérona JM, Prance GT, Hutchings RW, Silva MFD, Rodrigues WA, Uehling ME. Preliminary results of a large-scale tree inventory of upland rain forest in the Central Amazon. Acta Amazonica. 1992;22:493-534. doi: 10.1590/1809-43921992224534
    Remsen Jr JV, Cadena CD, Jaramillo A, Nores M, Pacheco JF, Robbins MB, et al. A classification of the bird species of South America. American Ornithologists' Union. 2011. http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html. Accessed 20 Jan 2014.
    Renjifo LM. Effect of natural and anthropogenic landscape matrices on the abundance of subandean bird species. Ecol Appl. 2001;11:14-31. doi: 10.1890/1051-0761(2001)011[0014:EONAAL]2.0.CO;2
    Robinson WD, Sherry TW. Mechanisms of avian population decline and species loss in tropical forest fragments. J Ornithol. 2012;153:141-52. doi: 10.1007/s10336-011-0806-y
    Rutt CL, Midway SR, Jirinec V, Wolfe JD, Stouffer PC. Examining the microclimate hypothesis in Amazonian birds: indirect tests of the 'visual constraints' mechanism. Oikos. 2019;6:798-810.
    Ryder TB, Sillett TS. Climate, demography and lek stability in an Amazonian bird. P Roy Soc B-Biol Sci. 2016;283:20152314. doi: 10.1098/rspb.2015.2314
    Saunders DA, Hobbs RJ, Margules CR. Biological consequences of ecosystem fragmentation: a review. Conserv Biol. 1991;5:18-32. doi: 10.1111/j.1523-1739.1991.tb00384.x
    Şekercioḡlu ÇH, Ehrlich PR, Daily GC, Aygen D, Goehring D, Sandí RF. Disappearance of insectivorous birds from tropical forest fragments. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2002;99:263-7. doi: 10.1073/pnas.012616199
    Sodhi NS, Liow LH, Bazzaz FA. Avian extinctions from tropical and subtropical forests. Annu Rev Ecol Evol Syst. 2004;35:323-45. doi: 10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.35.112202.130209
    Sodhi NS, Sekercioglu CH, Barlow J, Robinson SK. Conservation of tropical birds. New York: Wiley; 2011.
    Stouffer PC, Johnson EI, Bierregaard RO Jr, Lovejoy TE. Understory bird communities in Amazonian rainforest fragments: species turnover through 25 years post-isolation in recovering landscapes. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e20543. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0020543
    Stouffer PC, Bierregaard RO Jr. Recovery potential of understory bird communities in Amazonian rainforest fragments. Braz J Ornith. 2007;15:219-29.
    Stouffer PC, Bierregaard RO Jr. Use of Amazonian forest fragments by understory insectivorous birds. Ecology. 1995;76:2429-45. doi: 10.2307/2265818
    Stouffer PC, Bierregaard RO Jr, Strong C, Lovejoy TE. Long-term landscape change and bird abundance in Amazonian rainforest fragments. Conserv Biol. 2006;20:1212-23. doi: 10.1111/j.1523-1739.2006.00427.x
    Stratford JA, Robinson WD. Gulliver travels to the fragmented tropics: geographic variation in mechanisms of avian extinction. Front Ecol Environ. 2005;3:85-92. doi: 10.1890/1540-9295(2005)003[0085:GTTTFT]2.0.CO;2
    White GC, Burnham KP. Program MARK: survival estimation from populations of marked animals. Bird Study. 1999;46:S120-39. doi: 10.1080/00063659909477239
    Wolfe JD, Johnson MD, Ralph CJ. Do birds select habitat or food resources? Nearctic-neotropic migrants in Northeastern Costa Rica. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e86221. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0086221
    Wolfe JD, Ralph CJ, Elizondo P. Demographic response of a tropical bird to the El Niño southern oscillation in mature and young forest in Costa Rica. Oecologia. 2015. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00442-015-3256-z.
    Wright SJ. Tropical forests in a changing environment. Trends Ecol Evol. 2005;20:553-60. doi: 10.1016/j.tree.2005.07.009
  • 加载中


    通讯作者: 陈斌, bchen63@163.com
    • 1. 

      沈阳化工大学材料科学与工程学院 沈阳 110142

    1. 本站搜索
    2. 百度学术搜索
    3. 万方数据库搜索
    4. CNKI搜索

    Figures(3)  / Tables(2)

    Article Metrics

    Article views (1811) PDF downloads(8) Cited by()
    Proportional views


    DownLoad:  Full-Size Img  PowerPoint