Volume 13 Issue 1
Mar.  2022
Turn off MathJax
Article Contents
Alfred-Ștefan Cicort-Lucaciu, Hanem-Vera Keshta, Paula-Vanda Popovici, David Munkácsi, Ilie-Cătălin Telcean, Carmen Gache. 2022: Urban avifauna distribution explained by road noise in an Eastern European city. Avian Research, 13(1): 100067. doi: 10.1016/j.avrs.2022.100067
Citation: Alfred-Ștefan Cicort-Lucaciu, Hanem-Vera Keshta, Paula-Vanda Popovici, David Munkácsi, Ilie-Cătălin Telcean, Carmen Gache. 2022: Urban avifauna distribution explained by road noise in an Eastern European city. Avian Research, 13(1): 100067. doi: 10.1016/j.avrs.2022.100067

Urban avifauna distribution explained by road noise in an Eastern European city

doi: 10.1016/j.avrs.2022.100067
Funds:  The authors declare that the study was not funded
More Information
  • Corresponding author: E-mail address: cicort.alfred@yahoo.com (A.-.Cicort-Lucaciu)
  • Received Date: 05 Mar 2022
  • Accepted Date: 28 Sep 2022
  • Rev Recd Date: 26 Sep 2022
  • Available Online: 12 Jan 2023
  • Publish Date: 22 Oct 2022
  • In Eastern Europe, efforts are being made for road infrastructure development, as this area has not yet reached the level of that in the West. Road noise negatively affects birds, especially in urban habitats. Therefore, seven green spaces from an Eastern European city were monitored, which were selected according to the urbanization gradient and the hydrographic peculiarities of the area. The correlation between species richness and human population density, urban mobility, or road noise was verified. These three factors together explained over 99% of species richness distribution in habitats and during study periods. Road noise was the strongest predictor and the most negative influencer of bird species. These correlations were higher when we also considered the variability of species in habitats over time, instead of the total species richness of a habitat, as it expresses more accurately the impact of noise on the presence of species. The presence of species has decreased from one habitat to another along the urbanization gradient, from the edge of the city to the center, both in the case of terrestrial and aquatic green spaces. The most central park differed significantly from the other terrestrial green spaces in the city. At the same time, no significant differences were registered between the aquatic habitats or the rest of the terrestrial habitats. The ideal mitigation measure in this case would be that there are no roads in the immediate vicinity of green spaces. Still, if this is not possible (as in the case of all the existing green spaces in a city), we discuss/recommend placing noise barriers at the edge of green spaces or high-speed roads.


  • loading
  • Adams, C.E., 2016. Urban Wildlife Management, third ed. CRC Press/Taylor & Francis Group, Boca Raton.
    Aulsebrook, E., Connelly, F., Johnsson, R.D., Jones, T.M., Mulder, R.A., Hall, M.L., et al., 2020. White and amber light at night disrupt sleep physiology in birds. Curr. Biol. 30, 3657-3663. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2020.06.085.
    Batisteli, A.F., de Souza, L.B., Santieff, I.Z., Gomes, G., Soares, T.P., Pini, M., et al., 2021. Buildings promote higher incubation temperatures and reduce nest attentiveness in a Neotropical thrush. Ibis 163, 79-89. https://doi.org/10.1111/ibi.12863.
    Béczy, T., Poliș, R., Jurcsák, T., 1969. Contribuții la cunoașterea avifaunei izvoarelor termale de la Băile 1 Mai și pârâului Peța. In: Iacob, M. (Ed.), Sesiunea de Comunicări Științifice a Muzeelor; Decembrie 1964; Științele Naturii. Editura Științifică, București, pp. 177-187. (in Romanian).
    Bento Coelho, J.L., Alarcão, D., Almeida, A.M., Fafaiol, C., 2005. Noise Action Plans in Large Urban Areas. Proc ICSV 12, 11-14 July 2005, Lisbon.
    Bernat-Ponce, E., Gil-Delgado, J.A., López-Iborra, G.M., 2020. Replacement of semi-natural cover with artificial substrates in urban parks causes a decline of house sparrows Passer domesticus in Mediterranean towns. Urban Ecosyst. 23, 471-481. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11252-020-00940-4.
    Berry, B.J.L., 2008. Urbanization. In: Marzluff, J.M., Shulenberger, E., Endlicher, W., Alberti, M., Bradley, G., Ryan, C., et al. (Eds.), Urban Ecology: An International Perspective on the Interaction Between Humans and Nature. Springer, New York, pp. 25-48. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-73412-5_3.
    Blair, R.B., 1996. Land use and avian species diversity along an urban gradient. Ecol. Appl. 6, 506-519. https://doi.org/10.2307/2269387.
    de Camargo-Barbosa, K.V., Rodewald, A.D., Ribeiro, M.C., Jahn, A.E., 2020. Noise level and water distance drive resident and migratory bird species richness within a Neotropical megacity. Landscape Urban Plan. 197, e103769. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2020.103769.
    Campos-Silva, L.A., Piratelli, A.J., 2021. Vegetation structure drives taxonomic diversity and functional traits of birds in urban private native forest fragments. Urban Ecosyst. 24, 375-390. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11252-020-01045-8.
    Cardoso, G.C., Klingbeil, B.T., La Sorte, F.A., Lepczyk, C.A., Fink, D., Flather, C.H., 2020. Exposure to noise pollution across North American passerines supports the noise filter hypothesis. Global Ecol. Biogeogr. 29, 1430-1434. https://doi.org/10.1111/geb.13085.
    Carlson, T.N., Arthur, T., 2000. The impact of land use - land cover changes due to urbanization on surface microclimate and hydrology: a satellite perspective. Global Planet. Change 25, 49-65. doi: 10.1016/S0921-8181(00)00021-7
    de Carvalho, T.F., de Toledo, M.C.B., 2021. Tolerance to human presence, a comparison between rural and urban birds in southeastern Brazil. Environ. Sci. Ecol. Curr. Res. 2, e1023.
    Chown, S.L., Rensburg, B.J., Gaston, K.J., Rodrigues A.S.L., Jaarsveld A.S., 2003. Energy, species richness, and human population size: conservation implications at a national scale. Ecol. Appl. 13, 1233-1241. https://doi.org/10.1890/02-5105.
    CNADNR (Compania Națională de Autostrăzi și Drumuri Naționale din România), 2014. Instrucțiunile tehnice privind organizarea și efectuarea anchetelor de circulație origine-destinație; Pregătirea datelor de anchetă in vederea prelucrării. Buletin Tehnic Rutier 11, 51-105. (in Romanian).
    Cohut, I., Paál, G., 2017. Recviem pentru rezervația naturală „pârâul peța" de la Băile 1 mai. Nymphaea. Folia naturae Bihariae 44, 77-92. (in Romanian).
    Coroiu, I., Radulovici, A., 2002. Caracteristicile avifaunei. In: Cristea, V., Baciu, C., Gafta, D. (Eds.), Municipiul Cluj-Napoca și Zona Periurbană; Studii Ambientale. Editura Accent, Cluj-Napoca, pp. 147-156. (in Romanian).
    Cosma, C.O., 1977. Biologia nufărului termal Nymphaea lotus L. var. thermalis (D.C.) Tuzs, de la Băile 1 Mai - Oradea. Nymphaea 5, 365-380. (in Romanian).
    Dale, V.H., 1997. The relationship between land-use change and climate change. Ecol. Appl. 7, 753-769. https://doi.org/10.1890/1051-0761(1997)007[0753:TRBLUC]2.0.CO;2.
    Deng, J.S., Wang, K., Hong, Y., Qi, J.G., 2009. Spatio-temporal dynamics and evolution of land use change and landscape pattern in response to rapid urbanization. Landscape Urban Plan. 92, 187-198. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2009.05.001.
    Dooling, R.J., Popper, A.N., 2007. The Effects of Highway Noise on Birds. The California Department of Transportation Division of Environmental Analysis, Sacramento.
    Doniță, N., Popescu, A., Paucă-Comănescu, M., Mihailescu, S., Biriş, I.A., 2005. Habitatele din România. Editura Tehnică Silvică, Bucureşti. (in Romanian).
    Ducatez, S., Sol, D., Sayol, F., Lefebvre, L., 2020. Behavioural plasticity is associated with reduced extinction risk in birds. Nat. Ecol. Evol. 4, 788-793. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41559-020-1168-8.
    EC (Enviro Consult), CPML (CP Med Laboratory), 2018. Plan de acțiune destinat gestionării problemelor și efectelor cauzate de zgomot în Municipiul Oradea. S.C. CP Med Laboratory S.R.L., București. (in Romanian).
    Erdős, L., Ambarli, D., Anenkhonov, O.A., Bátori, Z., Cserhalmi, D., Kiss, M., et al., 2017. The edge of two worlds: a new review and synthesis on Eurasian forest-steppes. Appl. Veg. Sci. 21, 345-362. https://doi.org/10.1111/avsc.12382.
    EP (European Parliament), CEP (Council of the European Union), 2002. Directive 2002/49/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council. Official J. Eur. Commun. L189, 12-25.
    Evans, K.L., Greenwood, J.J.D., Gaston, K.J., 2007. The positive correlation between avian species richness and human population density in Britain is not attributable to sampling bias. Global Ecol. Biogeogr. 16, 300-304. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1466-8238.2006.00288.x.
    Feng, C., Liang, W., 2020. Living together: waterbirds distinguish between local fishermen and casual outfits. Global Ecol. Conserv. 22, e00994. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gecco.2020.e00994.
    Fernández-Juricic, E., 2000. Local and regional effects of pedestrians on forest birds in a fragmented landscape. Condor 102, 247-255. https://doi.org/10.1093/condor/102.2.247.
    Fernández-Juricic, E., Jokimäki, J., 2001. A habitat island approach to conserving birds in urban landscapes: case studies from southern and northern Europe. Biodivers. Conserv. 10, 2023-2043. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1013133308987.
    Fontana, C.S., Burger, M.I., Magnusson, W.E., 2011. Bird diversity in a subtropical South-American City: effects of noise levels, arborisation and human population density. Urban Ecosyst. 14, 341-360. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11252-011-0156-9.
    Forman, R.T.T., Reineking, B., Hersperger, A.N., 2002. Road traffic and nearby grassland bird patterns in a suburbanizing landscape. Environ. Manag. 29, 782-800. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00267-001-0065-4.
    Francis, A., Prusty, B.A.K., Azeez, P.A., 2020. Ingestion of unusual items by wetland birds in urban landscapes. Curr. Sci. 118, 977-983. https://doi.org/10.18520/cs/v118/i6/977-983.
    Grabarczyk, E.E., Gill, S.A., 2019. Anthropogenic noise masking diminishes house wren (Troglodytes aedon) song transmission in urban natural areas. Bioacoustics 29, 518-532. https://doi.org/10.1080/09524622.2019.1621209.
    Gustin, M., 2003. Gli uccelli nidificanti nella città di Reggio Emilia. Avocetta 27, e70.
    Hammer, OE., Harper, D.A.T., Ryan, P.D., 2001. PAST: paleontological statistics software package for education and data analysis. Palaeontol. Electron. 4, e4.
    Hu, Y., Cradoso, G.C., 2009. Are bird species that vocalize at higher frequencies preadapted to inhabit noisy urban areas? Behav. Ecol. 20, 1268-1273. https://doi.org/10.1093/beheco/arp131.
    Ibáñez, J.N., Rotoli F., 2017. Measuring the impact of the trans-European road transport network on the accessibility of European urban agglomerations. Transport. Res. Rec. 2605, 72-82. https://doi.org/10.3141/2605-07.
    Ibáñez-Álamo, J.D., Morelli, F., Benedetti, Y., Rubio, E., Jokimäki, J., Pérez-Contreras, T., et al., 2020. Biodiversity within the city: effects of land sharing and land sparing urban development on avian diversity. Sci. Total Environ. 707, e135477. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.135477.
    Ilieș, A., Tarța, M., Moțoc, M., 2007. Atlasul Zonei Metropolitane Oradea. DGTAT-CSAT & ZMO, Oradea. (in Romanian).
    Ilieș, D.C., Buhaș, R., Ilieș, A., Morar, C., Herman, G., 2015. Nymphaea lotus var. thermalis (Paraul Petea nature reserve), brand near extinction of the Băile Felix - Băile 1 Mai (Romania) Spa tourism system. GeoJ Tourism Geosites 15, 107-117.
    INCERTRANS (Institutul de Cercetări în Transporturi), 2016. Actualizarea planului de mobilitate urbană durabilă la nivelul Polului de Dezvoltare Urbană Oradea. S.C. Institutul de Cercetări în Transporturi - INCERTRANS S.A., București. (in Romanian).
    Jeong, C.H., 2001. Effect of land use and urbanization on hydrochemistry and contamination of groundwater from Taejon Area, Korea. J. Hydrol. 253, 194-210. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-1694(01)00481-4.
    Jiang, J., He, Y., Kou, H., Ju, Z., Gao, X., Zhao, H., 2020. The effects of artificial light at night on Eurasian tree sparrow (Passer montanus): behavioral rhythm disruption, melatonin suppression and intestinal microbiota alterations. Ecol. Indic. 108, e105702. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2019.105702.
    Jokimäki, J., Suhonen, J., 1998. Distribution and habitat selection of wintering birds in urban environments. Landscape Urban Plan. 39, 253-263. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0169-2046(97)00089-3.
    Jokimäki, J., Suhonen, J., Benedetti, Y., Diaz, M., Kaisanlahti-Jokimäki, M.L., Morelli, F., et al., 2020. Land-sharing vs. land-sparing urban development modulate predator-prey interactions in Europe. Ecol. Appl. 30, e02049. https://doi.org/10.1002/eap.2049.
    Kalnay, E., Cai, M., 2003. Impact of urbanization and land-use change on climate. Nature 423, 528-531. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature01675.
    Kang, W., Minor, E.S., Park, C.R., Lee, D., 2015. Effects of habitat structure, human disturbance, and habitat connectivity on urban forest bird communities. Urban Ecosyst. 18, 857-870. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11252-014-0433-5.
    Kertész, M., 1890. Nagyváradnak és vidékének állatvilága. In: Bunyitay, V. (Ed.), Nagyvárad természetrajza. A Magyar Orvosok és Természetvizsgálók Társasaga, Budapest, pp. 135-245. (in Hungarian).
    Kessler, E., 1974. Contribuții noi la avifauna depozitelor hidrotermale postglaciare de la Băile 1 Mai (Oradea, jud. Bihor). In: Stratul, E. (Ed.), Tibiscus; Științe Naturale. Muzeul Banatului Timișoara, Timișoara, pp. 123-128. (in Romanian).
    Kessler, E., 1975. Contribuții noi la studiul avifaunei fosile de la Betfia (jud. Bihor). Nymphaea 3, 53-69. (in Romanian).
    Kociolek, A.V., Clevenger, A.P., St. Clair, C.C., Proppe, D.S., 2011. Effects of road networks on bird populations. Conserv. Biol. 25, 241-249. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1523-1739.2010.01635.x.
    Koh, C.N., Lee Koh, P.F., Lin, R.S., 2006. Bird species richness patterns of northern Taiwan: primary productivity, human population density, and habitat heterogeneity. Divers. Distrib. 12, 546-554. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1366-9516.2006.00238.x.
    Kováts, L., 1973. Cercetări ornitologice în valea Crișului Repede între Oradea și granite de vest a României; Aspectul serotinal şi autumnal. Nymphaea 1, 87-136. (in Romanian).
    Kováts, L., 1974. Păsări rare din Valea Crișului Repede. In: Stratul, E. (Ed.), Tibiscus; Științe Naturale. Muzeul Banatului Timișoara, Timișoara, pp. 87-136. (in Romanian).
    Kováts, L., 1976. Cercetări cantitative efectuate asupra păsărilor pe malul Crișului Repede, in aval de Oradea. Nymphaea 4, 227-259. (in Romanian).
    Kováts, L., 1977a. Cercetări cantitative și calitative efectuate asupra păsărilor pe malul Crișului Repede între localitațile Sabolciu și Fughiu. Nymphaea 5, 453-481. (in Romanian).
    Kováts, L., 1977b. Cercetări cantitative și calitative efectuate asupra păsărilor pe malul pârâului Pețea. Nymphaea 5, 483-491. (in Romanian).
    Lao, S., Robertson, B.A., Anderson, A.W., Blair, R.B., Eckles, J.W., Turner, R.J., et al., 2020. The influence of artificial night at night and polarized light on bird-building collisions. Biol. Conserv. 241, e108358. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2019.108358.
    Lazarina, M., Tsianou, M.A., Boutsis, G., Andrikou-Charitidou, A., Karadimou, E., Kallimanis, A.S., 2020. Urbanization and human population favor species richness of alien birds. Diversity 12, 72. https://doi.org/10.3390/d12020072.
    Lengagne, T., 2008. Traffic noise affects communication behaviour in a breeding anuran, Hyla arborea. Biol. Conserv. 141, 2023-2031. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2008.05.017.
    Leveau, L.M., 2021. Big cities with small green areas hold a lower species richness and proportion of migrant birds: a global analysis. Urban For. Urban Gree. 57, e126953. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ufug.2020.126953.
    Linc, R., Dincă, I., Nistor, S., Tătar, C., Bucu, L., Stașac, M., et al., 2019. The environmental asset of the rural from Oradea Metropolitan Area (Romania). Analele Universitatii din Oradea. Seria Geografie 29, 1-17. doi: 10.30892/auog.292101-816
    Lucian, P., 2015. Some considerations on the sustainable urban development in Romania. Procedia Econ. Financ. 27, 574-578. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2212-5671(15)01035-7.
    Luck, G.W., 2007. A review of the relationships between human population density and biodiversity. Biol. Rev. 82, 607-645. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-185X.2007.00028.x.
    Luck, G.W., Smallbone, L., McDonald, S., Duffy, D., 2010. What drives the positive correlation between human population density and bird species richness in Australia? Global Ecol. Biogeogr. 19, 673-683. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1466-8238.2010.00545.x.
    Luniak, M., 2019. Wildlife in urban parks-why sustain it? Polish J. Landscape Stud. 1, 27-34. https://doi.org/10.14746/pls.2018.2.3.4.
    Magre, J.M., Juncà, M.B., Campanerac, J.M., Pagès, A.B., Mallén, I.R., Zaragozaa, R.M., et al., 2019. How urban green management is influencing passerine birds' nesting in the Mediterranean: a case study in a Catalan city. Urban For. Urban Gree. 41, 221-229. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ufug.2019.03.012.
    Măhăra, G., 2010. Caracterizarea fizico-geografică. In: Bradu, M., Chiriac, A., Măhăra., G. (Eds.), Monografia județului Bihor; Volumul 1. Editura Universităţii din Oradea, Oradea, pp. 11-27. (in Romanian).
    Man, T., Rusu, R., Moldovan, C., Ionescu-Heroiu, M., Moldovan, N.S., Hărănguș, I., 2015. Spatial impact of the road infrastructure development in Romania: an accessibility approach. Românian Rev. Region. Stud. 11, 101-112.
    Mardiastuti, A., Putra, M.S.K., Mulyani, Y.A., 2020. Bird diversity patterns along urbanization gradients: some recommendations for landscape planner. IOP Conference Series; Earth Environ. Sci. 556, e012012. https://doi.org/1088/1755-1315/556/1/012012.
    Máthé, O., Batáry, P., 2015. Insectivorous and open-cup nester bird species suffer the most from urbanization. Bird Study 62, 78-86. https://doi.org/10.1080/00063657.2014.1000262.
    Mătieș, M., Kohl S., 1965. Date noi (pentru sud-estul Europei) cu privire la iernarea în Transilvania și Crișana a unor păsări care de obicei migrează în regiuni mai calde. Studii și cercetări de Biologie. Seria Zoologie 17, 533-539. (in Romanian).
    Mayer, A., 1861. A Nagyváradi Hévvizek Történeti, Terméenyrajzi, Természet-, Vegy- És Gyógytani Tekintetben. Hollósy Lajos, Oradea (in Hungarian).
    McClure, C.J.W., Ware, H.E., Carlisle, J., Kaltenecker, G., Barber, J.R., 2013. An experimental investigation into the effects of traffic noise on distributions of birds: avoiding the phantom road. Proc. R. Soc. B. 280, e20132290. https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2013.2290.
    McKee, J., Chambers E., Guseman, J., 2013. Human population density and growth validated as extinction threats to mammal and bird species. Hum. Ecol. 41, 773-778. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10745-013-9586-8.
    McKinney, M.L., 2002. Urbanization, biodiversity, and conservation. BioScience 52, 883-890. https://doi.org/10.1641/0006-3568(2002)052[0883:UBAC]2.0.CO;2.
    Mena, L.M., Garcia, C.M., 2018. Songbird community structure changes with noise in an urban reserve. J. Urban Ecol. 4, juy022. https://doi.org/10.1093/jue/juy022.
    Merrall, E.S., Evans, K.L., 2020. Anthropogenic noise reduces avian feeding efficiency and increases vigilance along an urban-rural gradient regardless of species' tolerances to urbanization. J. Avian Biol. 51, e02341. https://doi.org/10.1111/jav.02341.
    MMDD (Ministerul Mediului și Dezvoltării Durabile), 2007. Ordin nr. 1.830 din 21 noiembrie 2007 pentru aprobarea Ghidului privind realizarea, analizarea şi evaluarea hărţilor strategice de zgomot. Monitorul Oficial al României I 864bis, 2–111 (in Romanian).
    MMDD (Ministerul Mediului și Dezvoltării Durabile); MT (Ministerul Transporturilor), MSP (Ministerul Sănătății Publice), MIRA (Ministerul Internelor și Reformei Administrative), 2008. Ordin pentru aprobarea Ghidului privind adoptarea valorilorlimită şi a modului de aplicare a acestora atunci când se elaborează planurile de acţiune, pentru indicatorii Lzsn şi Lnoapte, în cazul zgomotului produs de traficul rutier pe drumurile principale şi în aglomerări, traficul feroviar pe căile ferate principale şi în aglomerări, traficul aerian pe aeroporturile mari şi/sau urbane şi pentru zgomotul produs în zonele din aglomerări unde se desfăşoară activităţi industriale prevăzute în anexa nr. 1 la Ordonanţa de urgenţă a Guvernului nr. 152/2005 privind prevenirea şi controlul integrat al poluării, aprobată cu modificări şi completări prin Legea nr. 84/ 2006. Monitorul Oficial al României I 531, 9–11 (in Romanian).
    Nemeth, E., Brumm, H., 2010. Birds and anthropogenic noise: are urban songs adaptive? Am. Nat. 176, 465-475. https://doi.org/10.1086/656275.
    Omni, 2014. Amenajamentul Silvic Al Fondului Forestier Proprietate Privată Constituit În U.P. I – Composesoratele Burzuc, Chioag, Sârbi, Nufărul Seleuș, sisterea si A.U. Sititelec. Județul Bihor. SC OMNI SRL, Timișoara (in Romanian).
    Patón, D., Romero, F., Cuenca, J., Escudero, J.C., 2012. Tolerance to noise in 91 bird species from 27 urban gardens of Iberian Peninsula. Landscape Urban Plan. 104, 1-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2011.09.002.
    Phillips, J.N., Katti, M., 2020. Anthropogenic noise affects winter song structure of a long-distance migrant, Gambel's white-crowned sparrow. J. Urban Ecol. 6, juaa003. https://doi.org/10.1093/jue/juaa003.
    Perillo, A., Mazzoni, L.G., Passos, L.F., Goulart, V.D.L.R., Duca, C., Young, R.J., 2017. Anthropogenic noise reduces bird species richness and diversity in urban parks. Ibis 159, 638-646. https://doi.org/10.1111/ibi.1248.
    Pirzio-Biroli, A., Doren, B.M., Grabowska-Zhang, A., 2020. Drivers of avian species richness and community structure in urban courtyard gardens. J. Urban Ecol. 6, juz026. https://doi.org/10.1093/jue/juz026.
    Pop, I., 1968. Flora Și Vegetația Câmpiei Crișurilor. Interfluviul Crișul Negru – Crișul Repede. Editura Academiei Republicii Socialiste România. București. (in Romanian).
    Qian, H., Wang, S., Li, Y., Wang, X., 2009. Breeding bird diversity in relation to environmental gradients in China. Acta Oecologica 35, 819-823.
    RNP-ICAS (Regia Națională a Pădurilor - Institutul de Cercetări și Amenajări Silvice), 1997. Amenajamentul Ocolului Silvic Oradea - U.P. VIII Mihiș. Regia Națională a Pădurilor, Intitutul de Cercetări și Amenajări Silvice, București. (in Romanian).
    Rheinwald, G., Kelcey, J.G., 2005. Conclusions. In: Kelcey, J.G., Rheinwald, G. (Eds.), Birds in European Cities. GINSTER Verlag, Sankt Katharinen, pp. 417-422.
    Sala, O.E., Chapin, F.S., Armesto, J.J., Berlow, E., Bloomtheld, J., Dirzo, R., et al., 2000. Global biodiversity scenarios for the year 2100. Science 287, 1770-1774. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.287.5459.1770.
    Sandstrom, U.G., Angelstam, P., Mikusinski, G., 2006. Ecological diversity of birds in relation to the structure of urban green space. Landscape Urban Plan. 77, 39-53. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2005.01.004.
    Santos, S.G., Pieretti, N., Young, R.J., Duarte, M., 2021. Biophony in a noisy tropical urban forest fragment. Biota colombiana 22, 96-107. https://doi.org/10.21068/c2021.v22n01a06.
    Shimazaki, A., Yamaura, Y., Senzaki, M., Yabuhara, Y., Akasaka, T., Nakamura, F., 2016. Urban permeability for birds: an approach combining mobbing-callexperiments and circuit theory. Urban For. Urban Gree. 19, 167-175. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ufug.2016.06.024.
    da Silva, B.F., Pena, J.C., Viana-Junior, A.B., Vergne, M., Pizo, M.A., 2021. Noise and tree species richness modulate the bird community inhabiting small public urban green spaces of a Neotropical city. Urban Ecosyst. 24, 71-81. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11252-020-01021-2.
    Slabbekoorn, H., 2013. Songs of the city: noise-dependent spectral plasticity in the acoustic phenotype of urban birds. Anim. Behav. 85, 1089-1099. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anbehav.2013.01.021.
    Sol, D., González-Lagos, C., Moreira, D., Maspons, J., Lapiedra O., 2014. Urbanisation tolerance and the loss of avian diversity. Ecol. Lett. 17, 942-950. https://doi.org/10.1111/ele.12297.
    Stansell, H.M., Blumstein, D.T., Yeh, P.J., Nonacs, P., 2022. Individual variation in tolerance of human activity by urban Dark-eyed Juncos (Junco hyemalis). Wilson J. Ornithol. 134, 43-51. https://doi.org/10.1676/21-00001.
    Stelder, D., 2014. Regional accessibility trends in Europe: road infrastructure, 1957-2012. Region. Stud. 50, 983-995. https://doi.org/10.1080/00343404.2014.952721.
    Strano, E., Giometto, A., Shai, S., Bertuzzo, E., Mucha, P.J., Rinaldo, A., 2017. The scaling structure of the global road network. Roy. Soc. Open Sci. 4, e170590. https://doi.org/10.1098/rsos.170590.
    Tashakkor, S., Chamani, A., Nadoushan, M.A., Moshtaghie, M., 2020. Acoustics in urban parks: does the structure of narrow urban parks matter in designing a calmer urban landscape? Front. Earth Sci. 14, 512-521. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11707-020-0816-2.
    Telcean, I.C., Cupșa, D., 2013. The drastic decline of fish fauna in the thermal lake of "Baile 1 Mai" (Baile Episcopale, Bihor County, Romania). Pisces Hungarici 7, 141-142.
    VI (Vârful Înalt), 2017. Amenajamentul Silvic al fondului forestier proprietate publică a comunei Sârbi și privată a Asociației Madona Nojorid, Asociației Urbarială Șauaieu și Asociația Urbarială Drăgești. Județul Bihor. U.P. I Madona Șauaieu. SC Vârful Înalt SRL, Oradea, pp. 134.
    Vasenev, V.I., Yaroslavtsev, A.M., Vasenev, I.I., Demina, S.A., Dovltetyarova, E.A., 2019. Land-use change in New Moscow: first outcomes after five years of urbanization. Geogr. Environ. Sustain. 12, 24-34. https://doi.org/10.24057/2071-9388-2019-89.
    Vicaș G., Mintaș O., Coman S., 2013. Nymphea lotus var. thermalis — present and perspective. Nat. Resour. Sust. Dev. 3, 441-446.
    Wiącek, J., Polak, M., Kucharczyk, M., Bohatkiewicz, J., 2015. The influence of road traffic on birds during autumn period: implications for planning and management of road network. Landscape Urban Plan. 134, 76-82. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2014.10.016.
    Wilson, A.A., Ditmer, M.A., Barber, J.R., Cater, N.H., Miller, E.T., Tyrrell, L.P., et al., 2021. Artificial night light and anthropogenic noise interact to influence bird abundance over a continental scale. Global Change Biol. 27, 3987-4004. https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.15663.
    Zhang, M., Cheong, K., Leong, K., Zou, F., 2012. Effect of traffic noise on black-faced spoonbills in the Taipa-Coloane Wetland Reserve, Macao. Wildlife Res. 39, 603-610. doi: 10.1071/wr12060
  • 加载中


    通讯作者: 陈斌, bchen63@163.com
    • 1. 

      沈阳化工大学材料科学与工程学院 沈阳 110142

    1. 本站搜索
    2. 百度学术搜索
    3. 万方数据库搜索
    4. CNKI搜索


    Article Metrics

    Article views (105) PDF downloads(5) Cited by()
    Proportional views


    DownLoad:  Full-Size Img  PowerPoint