Volume 13 Issue 1
Mar.  2022
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Xiangyang Chen, Yan Cai, Jiaojiao Wang, Canchao Yang. 2022: Use of 3D-printed animal models as a standard method to test avian behavioral responses toward nest intruders in the studies of avian brood parasitism. Avian Research, 13(1): 100061. doi: 10.1016/j.avrs.2022.100061
Citation: Xiangyang Chen, Yan Cai, Jiaojiao Wang, Canchao Yang. 2022: Use of 3D-printed animal models as a standard method to test avian behavioral responses toward nest intruders in the studies of avian brood parasitism. Avian Research, 13(1): 100061. doi: 10.1016/j.avrs.2022.100061

Use of 3D-printed animal models as a standard method to test avian behavioral responses toward nest intruders in the studies of avian brood parasitism

doi: 10.1016/j.avrs.2022.100061
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  • Corresponding author: E-mail address: ccyang@hainnu.edu.cn (C. Yang)
  • Received Date: 30 May 2022
  • Accepted Date: 24 Aug 2022
  • Rev Recd Date: 16 Aug 2022
  • Available Online: 12 Jan 2023
  • Publish Date: 13 Sep 2022
  • Living and/or non-living animal models are often used as stimuli to observe the behavioral responses of the target animals. In the past, parasites, predators, and harmless controls have been used to test host anti-parasitism defense behavior, and their taxidermy specimens have been widely used as a set of standard methods for the study of avian brood parasitism. In recent years, with the rapid development of 3D-printing technology, 3D-printed bird models are expected to be applied as a standard method in the study of avian brood parasitism. To evaluate the use of 3D-printed models, this study tests the reaction of Oriental Reed Warbler (Acrocephalus orientalis) towards predators, parasites, or controls, and compares the reaction among different nest intruders and between taxidermy specimens and 3D-printed animal models. It was found that the Oriental Reed Warbler responded most aggressively to the parasite, followed by predator, and finally the control; the results were consistent between the reaction to taxidermy specimens and 3D-printed animal models, indicating that 3D-printed models could serve as a substitute for taxidermy specimens. We propose a series of advantages of using 3D-printed models and suggest them to be a standard method for widespread use in future studies of avian brood parasitism.


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